Go to WTJ Information Page Go to WTJ Portal Go to WTJ War Series Go to WTJ Archives Go to WTJ Articles Go to WTJ Gaming Go to WTJ Store Go to WTJ Home Page


1 Command   [2 Maneuver]   3 Artillery/Skirmish   4 Assault   5 Panic Test

Movement - Maneuver - Forced Move - Movement Modifiers - Special Rules - Terrain Effects

« 2.1 Movement
Each of the major troop types used for game play have movement allowances which represent the total normal distances they are allowed to move during any one player turn. These allowances are shown in the Movement Box on the Combat Chart. Normal infantry and cavalry allowances are 20cm and 35cm respectively. Each of these troop types may also use an assault movement bonus (also called charge movement), any portion of which may be used during the course of a turn. Normal infantry and cavalry charge bonuses are 8cm and 13cm respectively. This extra movement allowance permits a unit to cover a greater distance during its turn, but use of any of the extra assault movement will also cause the unit to suffer a morale hit at the end of the turn. Officers and couriers move at the speed of charging cavalry (48cm).

A unit's movement allowance is based on forward movement as measured from the front edge of its bases. Units may wheel up to the limit of their movement, and may move obliquely (diagonally) up to 45 degrees from perpendicular (See figure at right). Moving backwards counts as rough movement (double normal cost). Conducting an about-face counts as a formation change. All movement penalties are cumulative, for example; a unit operating on the Prussian system of formations change (see below) would move at one-quarter its normal speed if it were to wheel backwards.

Wheeling and Oblique Movement

Unit A has just completed an oblique movement. Oblique moves may be conducted up to 45 degrees from perpendicular. Unit B has just completed a wheel. Wheeling movement is measured along the outermost edge of the wheel (i.e. - the longest).

« 2.2 Maneuver
All troops used for game play are considered to be operating under one of the two basic systems of maneuver used during this era; the Prussian system and the French system. The outcome of a battle can be dramatically effected by the selection of maneuver systems employed. Players will not usually be able to choose which maneuver system to use. The time period within which a scenario is staged will usually be the deciding factor for both sides.

Prussian Maneuver System - The Prussian system of maneuver was used by most nations of Europe for a great part of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The system was an extremely complex product of the pre-modern era, and involved a seemingly endless series of evolutions in order to complete most formation changes. Because most nations of Europe had closely imitated Prussian maneuver doctrine since the end of the Seven Years War, all countries fighting against France during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Periods should be considered to be on the Prussian system of maneuver unless otherwise specified. See the troop lists by nationality (listed on the main Republique page) for more information.

Game Effects: In Republique, units on the Prussian system suffer the following movement limitations: Wheeling, oblique movement and passing through other combat units counts as rough (double normal cost). Moving sideways counts as double rough movement (quadruple normal cost). Changing formation subtracts 15cm from movement.

French Maneuver System - The French system of tactical maneuver was pioneered by Comte de Guibert after many years of research following the Seven Years War. Among many innovations, the new system allowed units to file off by ranks to their new positions instead of awkwardly wheeling by sub-units. These improvements greatly reduced the time needed to change formation and maneuver, giving units who used the system a tactical advantage against most enemies who still used the Prussian system. The new system was approved by the French government in 1791, and the benefits were quickly apparent. Russia, Austria and Prussia probably did not implement their versions of the system until after 1812. France's German allies were probably converted to the new system by 1808. Britain appears to have adopted their own variation of the Prussian system which was efficient enough to be rated in the same class as the French system.

Game Effects: In Republique, units on the French system may wheel, pass through other units, move diagonally and move sideways at normal movement rates. Changing formation subtracts 5cm from movement.
« 2.3 Forced Movement
Units required to move according to a game mandated action or result will do so regardless of their current turn status or movement allowance. These mandatory or "forced" moves may occur during the following conditions:
Movement Phase: Due to skirmish marker recall and/or evasion due to displacement by advancing enemy combat bases.
Artillery Phase: Due to morale hits causing demoralized units to break-up or rout.
Assault Phase: Rout, Retreat, Withdrawal or Advance due to assault resolution, emergency rallies or army panic.

Retrograde forced movements such as rout, retreat and withdraw are not subject to terrain penalties or formation restrictions (rough move, about-facing, pass through, etc.), and will always be conducted out to the maximum distance required for that mandatory order:
Withdraw = ½ normal move away from enemy, facing enemy.
Fall Back = Full normal move away from enemy, facing enemy.
Retreat = Full normal move away from enemy, facing away from enemy.
Rout = Full charge move away from enemy, facing away from enemy.

The forced movement of evading or recalling skirmish markers may be conducted in any manner which does not violate the skirmish marker deployment rules. Mandatory advances may be conducted only to the limit of the moving unit's available movement remaining from the preceding Maneuver Phase of that Player Turn. Forced advances are in turn subject to cancelation by subsequent assault rounds which may change the advancing unit's actions.

« 2.4 Movement Modifiers
Road Movement = All infantry and cavalry units must be in a road column formation in order to benefit from road movement. Artillery units must be limbered in order to use the road movement bonus.
Rough Movement = Any unit with more than half of any one of its frontage bases within rough terrain will pay double the normal movement cost. Double normal movement cost means that each inch of distance moved under rough conditions actually costs two inches of that unit's available movement allotment for that player turn (see Terrain Effects). Units also pay double the normal movement cost when conducting difficult maneuvers (see Maneuver Systems).

The view above is of several regiments of French infantry with some of their skirmish markers deployed (single figures in foreground). Light regiment skirmishers may move up to 15cm from their parent units. Line regiment skirmishers must remain within 8cm of their parent units.
« 2.5 Special rules
Skirmishers - Skirmish capable units may deploy their maximum allowance of skirmish markers at any time during their movement phase (see troop lists for unit skirmish allowances). Skirmish markers may be placed anywhere within 8cm from their parent unit for line infantry based skirmishers, and 15cm from their parent unit for light infantry based skirmishers. They may not be placed in a position which puts enemy bases between them and their parent unit, nor may they be in the primary contact zone between two assaulting combat formations.

Skirmish markers must always surrender their positions (i.e. - give ground) to enemy combat bases and, if displaced, have the following options:
Fighting Withdrawal: If displaced by enemy units which are not moving to initiate an assault, the skirmish markers are only required to withdraw until the enemy units have completed their move. The skirmish markers do not need to return to their parent unit(s).

Break and Run: If displaced by enemy units which are moving to initiate assault contact, the skirmishers must immediately attempt to return to their parent unit(s). Markers which are within 5cm of their parent unit may automatically return. Markers which are greater than 5cm from their parent unit must remain separated and may be placed alongside or to the rear of their parent unit. (Also see optional rule: Dispersing Skirmishers).
Any skirmish markers which fire during the artillery phase may not rejoin a parent unit at all for the remainder of that player turn.

Cavalry - Cavalry units may react to enemy units which advance to within 15cm of their front during an opposing player's Maneuver Phase. Reacting cavalry may begin moving as soon as enemy units approach to within line of sight or 15cm, whichever is less. Both sides then pro-rate their movement until the reacting cavalry and enemy formations have either completed their movement, contacted or approached within primary assault range. Reacting cavalry may not change formation. Reacting cavalry may leave its divisional command radius and may react while out of command range.

Artillery - There are two types of movement for artillery; Limbered and Prolong. Limbered artillery is attached to a wheeled carriage drawn by horses. Prolong is unlimbered cannon being drawn by men or horses while in a "fire ready" condition.

In order to accomplish both movement and firing, each artillery battery may execute several specific "functions" during the course of a turn. The available functions are: Move, Unlimber, Fire, Prolong and Limber. Foot artillery may conduct two functions each turn, and horse artillery may conduct three functions. For example; a foot battery may move and unlimber during its movement phase but it may not fire on its following fire phase. If it were to unlimber in place (without moving), it could then fire on its upcoming fire phase. Batteries may not use the same function more than once each turn (i.e. - may not prolong twice during the same movement phase, etc.). Artillery which prolongs loses simultaneous fire privilege against enemy artillery and must suffer enemy artillery effects before they fire.

« 2.6 Terrain Effects
Battlefield terrain will inevitably affect a units ability to move freely around the field of battle. The Battlefield section includes a list of terrain features and their effects on movement. Units may form their front line to local terrain such as hillside, woods, blocks of buildings, streams, etc. Units in the open must maintain their linear deployments within the limits of the formations section.
  Copyright © 1996-2003 by The War Times Journal at www.wtj.com. All rights reserved.
All games shown here may be freely downloaded for personal use only. Not for resale or any other commercial venture not authorized by The War Times Journal.