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1 Command   2 Maneuver   3 Artillery/Skirmish   [4 Assault]   5 Panic Test

Assault Procedure - Special Rules- Modifiers - Results - Emergency Rally - Injury & Disorder

« 4.1 Assault Procedure
Hostile units which have approached to within 25mm of each other during movement must now enter into the assault phase. This phase represents the musket volleys, melees, charges and countercharges which occur in the confusion of close combat. Each unit involved in an assault must apply its entire strength to that assault if the nearest portion of an enemy unit is within 25mm of its facing arc. This is defined as primary contact. A unit whose nearest portion is more than 25mm but less than 50mm must apply half of its strength (rounding down) to the assault. This is called incidental contact. A unit's facing arc is measured 45 degrees from the rear corners of its furthest left and right front base(s), up the sides of those bases and from the front edges all front bases. Only a unit facing within 25mm of an enemy unit or units is able to initiate an assault, thereby drawing in nearby incidental units. Purely incidental contact cannot initiate an assault. Skirmisher markers do not interfere with assault proximity and do not apply their bases to the assault. Each assault is resolved on the Assault section of the Combat Chart as follows:

Step 1: Each player totals his modifiers and applies them to the result of one ten sided die roll.
Step 2: The attacker then subtracts the defender's modified result from his own to arrive at the die roll difference.
Step 3: Refer to the die roll difference values shown in the die roll box located down the center of the assault section of the Combat Chart. High rolling attacker values (winners) are in the upper half and low rolling attacker values (losers) are in the lower half.
Step 4: Immediately apply the results to the involved units according to the attacker type. All initial assaults must be resolved before breakthrough assaults and continuing movement are carried out. Mark breakthrough locations before moving on to resolve other assaults.
Step 5: Leaders which have been attached to units involved in the current assault round must roll for possible injury or death. A leader who has led an emergency rally must also roll for injury if the assault in question occurred as a result of the emergency rally.
Step 6: After the first "round" of assaults is resolved, conduct all breakthrough movements and other mandatory movements (if any) required by the assault results. Then repeat steps 1 through 5 for any additional assault rounds which are required to be resolved.

Some assault results may trigger several rounds of die rolling before final resolution. As long as enemy units continue to face within 25mm of each other, they will continue to trigger new assaults. Stalled assaults occur when units required by the rules to continue or breakthrough have insufficient movement to do so (see assault results).

Assault Ranges - In the example at left, the attacking infantry unit A is assaulting defending infantry unit Y because it is facing within 25mm of that unit. Even though A is past units Y's flank line, the defending unit is not outflanked because it is in buildings. Also, because another friendly unit (Z) is facing within 50mm of the assaulting unit, the defenders have 4 bases involved in the assault (all of Y and half of Z), which prevents unit Y from being outnumbered. Note that even had it been left unsupported, unit Y could never have been considered outnumbered by more than 3:2 because it is in buildings.

Assaulting Units - In the example at right, units A and X are assaulting each other, and units B and Z are assaulting each other. Unit Y however, is in the proximity of two enemy units. Units will always be involved with enemy units which are closest. So unit Y is involved in the B-Z assault. Players could conduct all five units as one grand assault, but only if both sides agreed. Otherwise, assaults must be broken down into the smallest possible groups.

« 4.2 Special Rules
Local Breakthrough - Attacking units which are rendered out of primary assault contact with enemy formations due to artillery or skirmish fire related withdrawals may expend the balance of their remaining normal or assault movement allowance to advance and/or establish assault contact with fresh assault targets. Such local breakthroughs may not violate standing divisional orders. Players intending to move qualifying units must declare so at the start of the Assault Phase, and all such movements must be completed before assault resolution begins.

Artillery - Each unlimbered artillery battery within assault range of an enemy unit counts as one combat base in the same manner as an infantry or cavalry base. A massed artillery battery (several batteries with bases touching) counts as one unit, with each base also equalling one regular combat base. A limbered artillery battery counts as one base, but may not contribute to incidental assault contact.

Cavalry - Cavalry may not use or inflict the In Line, Cavalry or Outnumbered assault modifiers when fighting in or through rough terrain, buildings or against infantry squares. The chart below outlines which modifiers are lost under these conditions:

Modifier Type Assaulting
in/through Rough Terrain
in Buildings
versus Square
With Infantry
versus Square
Cavalry No No No Yes
In Line No No No No
Outnumbered Yes No No Yes
Modifier Type: Cavalry = If No, the cavalry unit(s) may not use their respective Light, Medium, Heavy or Armored cavalry modifiers. In Line = If No, the cavalry may not use the +1 modifier for being in line. Outnumbered = If No, the unit which is fighting against the cavalry will not suffer any outnumbered modifiers, regardless of actually outnumbered status.

Conditions: Assaulting in/through Rough Terrain = Use this column if half or more of the assaulting cavalry bases are within rough terrain, moved through rough terrain during the course of the current player turn, or if they are assaulting units within rough terrain. Assaulting in Buildings = Use this column if the units being engaged by the cavalry qualify as being within buildings. Solo versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are attacking infantry squares while unaccompanied by friendly infantry formations. With Infantry versus Square = Use this column for cavalry units which are attacking infantry squares while accompanied in the assault by friendly infantry formations. The supporting infantry formations must be combat units (not skirmish markers) and may be in primary or incidental assault contact.

« 4.3 Assault Modifiers
The following modifiers are added or subtracted from the assault roll to complete a modified assault roll. For optional assault rules, see the Assault section of the Optional rules page, which addresses more advanced issues such as assault averaging of both troop grades and cavalry types.

  • Officer Leading Unit - A unit with an attached leader receives that leader's value added to the assault roll. The unit must be within the leader's chain of command unless the leader is charismatic.
  • Troop Grades - Attacker and/or defender add or subtract the corresponding troop grade modifier if the greatest percentage of bases present are elite, veteran, green or militia grade troops respectively.
  • Cavalry Grades - Attacker and/or defender add to the die roll if any friendly light, medium, heavy or armored cavalry is present in the assault. Only the modifier for the heaviest cavalry unit present is used.
  • Morale Hits - Attacker and/or defender subtract from the die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are disordered, rattled, shaken or demoralized.
  • Outnumbering Ratio - The combatants with the lesser number of bases will subtract from the die roll if the outnumbered ratio is equal to or greater than 3:2, equal to or great than 2:1, etc. Units in buildings may not be outnumbered by enemy infantry by greater than 3:2 regardless of actual ratio. Units assaulted only in the rear may not inflict outnumbered modifiers. See special cavalry rules for limitations on outnumbering ratios.
  • In Line - Attacker and/or defender add 1 to their die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are from infantry or cavalry units in line.
  • Each Base Lost - Attacker and/or defender subtract one point from their die roll for each of their own bases lost from participating units so far during the player turn.
  • Each Skirmisher Deployed - If the greatest percentage of bases present belong to units with deployed/killed skirmishers, attacker and/or defender subtracts one point for each skirmish base those units have deployed or lost.
  • Hit in Flank - Defender subtracts two from the die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are from outflanked units (if assaulting unit finishes its move to assault with any part of its bases past the defending unit's flank line). Void if target is hit in rear. Note that infantry squares and units in buildings have no flank (i.e. - their flank zone is considered part of the front).
  • Hit in Rear - Defender subtracts four from the die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present are from units hit in the rear (assaulting unit finishes its move to contact with any part of its bases past the defending unit's rear line). Note that infantry squares have no rear. Units in buildings do have a rear.
Tactical Bonuses
A - Heavy: Cover: Stone buildings, redoubts, fleches, stone walls, earthworks, heavy woods.
B - Solid: Cover: Medium woods, light stone wall or heavy wooden buildings.
C - Soft: Non-Cover: Top of slope/ravine, British infantry, saved fire. Cover: Groves, light wood buildings, hedges, treelines
  • Tactical Bonus - Attacker and/or defender add 1, 2 or 3 points to their die roll if the greatest percentage of bases present qualify for one of the tactical bonuses shown here. Non-cover tactical bonuses listed in Class C apply only toward defenders, and only during assaults. Cover effects apply to both attackers and defenders. Covering terrain also modifies artillery fire (see Artillery Fire Modifiers).

Flank & Rear ZonesFlank and Rear Examples - The flank line for unit A is shown along the rear of the front bases, parallel to the unit's front. The rear lines originate at the outer rear base corners, perpendicular to the unit's front. Unit Y is in a flanking position because part of one of its bases is past the flank line for unit A. Unit Z is striking in the rear because part of one of its bases is past the rear line for unit A. Units struck in both the flank and rear will only suffer the worst of the two effects (-4), not both.

« 4.4 Assault Results
Hits and Losses - Both attacking and defending units may suffer morale hits, base hits and panic hits as a result of their primary or incidental involvement in an assault. All results for each "round" of assault combat are applied simultaneously, as are the mandatory movements which may be required.

Morale hits - All primary and incidental units involved in an assault will suffer the number of morale hits called for by the assault chart results. Affected units are immediately marked with the corresponding hits markers to show their new condition. All requirements to roll again are done so with modifiers adjusted for the new morale condition(s).

Base hits - Base hits inflicted due to assault results are first distributed randomly among units which were within closest primary contact with the enemy units. Only if all primary contact bases are lost will remaining unassigned base hits be allotted to incidental contact units. Bases lost due to base hits are removed immediately from play, and before surrender results are applied.

Panic Hits - Panic hits control the manner in which units respond to their assault loss. To find a unit's panic response, refer to the corresponding panic level in the Panic Index, and cross reference the troop grade of the losing units with that panic level's assault column. The results shown indicate the type of mandatory movement which the losing unit must conduct, either W (withdrawal), F (fall back), Re (retreat) or Rt (rout). The same result also may include a loss number, which represents the number of bases which must surrender to the enemy as a result of the assault. Losers required to surrender bases will do so only after base hits have been withdrawn. Surrendering bases are taken first from primary contact units of the lowest troop grade present, followed by higher troop grade bases within primary contact. Only if all primary contact bases are lost may remaining "unassigned surrenders" be taken from incidental contact units.

Example: A veteran grade unit suffers two panic hits as a result of an assault. The controlling player will refer to the second line of the Panic 2 index column (the second line corresponds with the Veteran troop grade units). The Result column indicates an F, meaning that the unit will fall back without further loss. If the unit had been composed of green quality troops, it would have received a Rt-1 result, which would result in one rout move, and the loss of one base as prisoners.

Carry Position - Units allowed to carry a position are allowed to move half-way into the position originally taken up by the enemy units before their departure. Carrying a position allows a unit a certain amount of latitude to adjust their orientation, but only if they have sufficient movement allowance remaining.

Continuing Movement - Assault results may either be allow or order attackers to continue moving. While conducting this continuing movement, they are subject to normal movement rules and may initiate new assaults against other units. They may not violate or exceed their current orders while completing the move, nor may they exceed their maximum movement allowance as measured from the start of their movement phase. Units whose assault results state that they must continue their assault movement will move to the limit of their full assault movement (even if movement orders are violated as a result) unless countermanded by a new assault result. Units which use their assault movement bonus will suffer one morale hit at the end of the turn.

Breakthrough - A breakthrough allows assaulting cavalry to break past or through a stationary defeated unit (if any remains) and to conduct continuing moving. The cavalry may continue assaulting units in this manner as long as it has the available movement and continues to achieve assault results allowing further movement and action. Cavalry which remains in primary contact with an enemy unit due to refusal to conduct a voluntary breakthrough must conduct further assault rounds until the primary contact is broken.

Break off - Allows assaulting cavalry to utilize their remaining movement (if any) to move out of primary assault contact with the enemy.

Units unable to withdraw, retreat or rout away from the enemy without coming in contact with other enemy combat bases will surrender. All breakthrough, break-off and continuing assault moves are carried out after the first assault round is completed. Subsequent assault rounds are conducted in the same manner.

Stalled Assaults - Assaulting units which have insufficient remaining movement to execute breakthrough or break-off orders are stalled. Stalled units must conduct further assault rounds against their neighboring opponents until they are no longer facing within the 25mm assault range of each other.

Artillery effects - Unless separately mentioned, artillery batteries suffer the same results other units involved in an assault, and are subject to the same losses. If any separate artillery effects are called for by the assault results, the involved artillery does not suffer from the effects mentioned in the first part of the results. For example: With an infantry attacker scoring a +7, defending artillery would not suffer 3M and 2P, instead, they would be captured as called for using the artillery abbreviation. If however, the same attacking infantry scored a +3, the artillery would suffer the 2M and 1P as shown because that is the only result called for in the +2/+3 description. In the later case, the artillery would also be subject to possible surrender.

« 4.5 Emergency Rally
Upon losing any assault, the commander of the losing side may use local unattached officer figures to attempt an emergency rally of units which lost the just-ended assault. Emergency Rallies may be attempted on any unit(s) within 8cm of the rallying leader, and are conducted before moving the losing unit(s).

Step 1: Announce the Rallying leader.
Step 2: Roll on the leader injury chart using the +4 emergency rally modifier and any other modifiers which apply. Note that the leading attack/defense modifier and the emergency rally modifier should never be used together, since leaders already attached (i.e. - leading) may not conduct emergency rallies.
Step 3: If the leader survives, he may roll to rally the friendly unit(s), applying double his normal value and any other modifiers which apply. If the unit(s) rallies, a new assault round is immediately resolved, with the rallied unit(s) occupying their original positions, and the bonus for the leader applied as if he were attached to the rallied forces (even though he is not).

Leaders may only conduct one emergency rally per assault phase. They may however, simultaneously emergency rally several units who all participated in the same losing assault round. Assaulting cavalry may ignore successful emergency rallies and continue with a breakthrough or break-off move. In either case, the rallied unit will reform in its original position and facing, behind the assaulting cavalry if necessary. Infantry who successfully emergency rally against cavalry may form square.

« 4.6 Injury and Disorder
Leader Injuries - Roll 1D10 for each leader who was within 8cm of any unit involved in an assault during the current Assault Phase. Leaders who have already rolled for injury due to direct participation in assault rounds or emergency rallies are exempt from this final roll. Definitions for the injury die roll modifiers appear in the Leader Injuries & Withdrawal section of the Artillery & Skirmish Fire phase.

Charge Disorder - Units which use any of their assault bonus movement (also known as charge movement) during the turn will suffer charge disorder at that turn's end. Units suffering charge disorder suffer one morale hit, but only after all assaults, emergency rallies and counterattacks are resolved.
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