[1 Command]   2 Maneuver   3 Artillery/Skirmish  4 Assault   5 Panic Test

Chain of Command - Command Radiuses - Orders - Leaders - Rallying
« 1.1 Chain of Command
Republique uses a very simple divisional level command system. Every infantry regiment, cavalry brigade and artillery battery needs to have a divisional commander in charge of it, and every divisional commander is controlled by someone who issues his orders. Even in the rare case of units without any official divisional commander, there will be a leader who fulfills the role of a divisional officer and who is considered such for game play purposes.

At the beginning of the French Revolutionary period, the highest permanent formations were usually regiments. Eventually, nations began grouping regiments into permanent or provisional divisions and by the last half of the wars, these divisions were grouped into permanent corps. Below is a short description of each of these systems and how they are represented in Republique. Related subjects such as orders and command radiuses are explained later in the chapter.

Regimental Pool System: Using this basic system, a commander-in-chief was allotted a general pool of units which he then doled out to various officers under his command. These subordinates then operated their own columns or "wings," either independently or as part of a larger army. During battles, the commander-in-chief would commonly assign these column commanders to the army's left flank, center, right flank and advanced guard.

In Republique, the wing or column leaders function as divisional commanders. They are issued game orders by the commander-in-chief, and all units assigned to them must remain within their respective command radiuses.

Divisional Wing System: This is similar to the previous method, except that column commanders were assigned divisions and brigades instead of regiments. Each division was likely to be a semi-permanent organization of infantry, artillery and/or cavalry.

In Republique, the divisional commanders operate as normal by keeping the various units under their command within the required command radiuses. Column commanders issue game orders to various divisions under their command. The commander-in-chief in turn issues written orders to the various column commanders.

Corps System: In this system, autonomous corps are assigned their own semi-permanent commanders and divisions. Each division is permanently assigned certain regiments and has organic artillery elements. Each divisional leader is given orders by the corps commander who may assign additional cavalry and/or artillery assets from the corps reserve.

In Republique, corps commanders issue game orders to the divisional leaders and may remove units (especially artillery) from the divisions and assign them to corps reserve formations. They may also assign various reserve units to the divisions, in which case the newly assigned units are subject to divisional commander radiuses. Corps level reserve formations with their own leaders operate in the same manner as divisions, receiving game orders from the corps commander. Corps (and army) reserve units without their own leaders must either be assigned to a division or assigned an aid-de-camp, who acts as their divisional commander. Army level divisions (usually reserve formations) receive game orders from army commanders in the same manner that member divisions of a corps receive game orders from their corps commanders.

« 1.2 Command Radiuses
All units under the command of a divisional leader must remain within that officer's command radius (CR), which is measured from the edge of the commanding leader's base. The command radius represents a zone of communication within which a divisional leader may automatically control units under his command. Units within their divisional commander's effective radius will always respond to order changes on the same turn upon which those changes are successfully rolled for and changed. Units outside their divisional leader's command radius are considered to have exceeded the ability to communicate with them in a timely manner and have correspondingly limited courses of action. This command radius system applies only to divisional leaders and their equivalents, not to corps/army commanders, who do not have command radiuses. At the end of each assault phase, divisional leaders may adjust their positions by up to 8cm in order to keep within their command radius those units which conducted mandatory movements during the assault phase.

There are three command categories, each of which have operate using established command radiuses and order change abilities. These categories are:
Efficient: 30cm command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 4 or higher.
Functional: 25cm Command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 6 or higher.
Cumbersome: 20cm command radius. Change orders on a die roll of 8 or higher.
Refer to the Troop Types by Nationality list for command category information for specific nations.

Leaving the CR - Units which leave their divisional leader's command radius because of a morale failure or assault result (i.e. - due to a mandatory movement.) will remain in their final position until they rally (if necessary). If after rallying they are still out of the CR, they must either remain stationary under an automatic defend order, continue withdrawing each turn if demoralized, or move to rejoin their parent formation. While separated from their division, they receive no benefits for rally orders which their division might be under and they may not execute divisional orders until they rejoin their division by re-entering the CR. They may however, receive rally bonuses from other leaders in their chain of command or other charismatic leaders who are within 8cm.

Leaving units behind - Units attempting to individually rally may be left behind by divisional leaders in order to maintain the pace of a move or attack order. Leaders attached to regiments continuing assaults may also leave distant units behind. The units left behind suffer the same restrictions as units which have retreated from a CR.

« 1.3 Orders
There are two types of orders used to transmit commands during game play: game orders and written orders. Game orders are issued to divisions by their respective corps or army commanders. Written orders are issued to corps or columns, effectively limiting direct communication between participating players. Divisions never receive written orders, and corps/armies (or their equivalents) never receive game orders.

Game Orders
At the beginning of each game, every division must be issued initial game orders by its respective corps/army commander. Official game orders are: attack, defend, reserve, move and rally. Once game play begins, players wishing to change a division's orders must first pass an order change test, which may only be attempted during the command phase of the controlling player's turn. To attempt an order change, consult the Leaders section of the combat chart. The Change Orders column in that section indicates the die rolls required for a formation of that nationality to have its orders changed. Order changes include switching among order types, changing a command path in any way or changing the configuration of a defensive area.

Move - Moving divisions mark their movement route on the battlefield map. This command path is drawn as a single line terminated by an arrowhead. The arrowhead indicates where the division will stop and automatically revert to a defend order, with the attitude of the arrowhead indicating the division's defensive facing. The command path itself may be as straight or sinuous as the commanding player wishes, although players should keep in mind that the more complex a unit's march route, the more subject the unit will become to unexpected events.

Each turn that a division is under move orders, it must have at least half of its units expend at least half of their available movement following the command path line until they reach their objective or come within 25cm of enemy units. While the division is within this 25cm contact range, its units may move at any speed required to fight properly so long as the division's overall center line remains within 15cm of the command arrow's route shown on the map.

Attack - Attacking divisions are assigned specific enemy units to attack. This command path is drawn on the map as a single line leading to the target location, which is circled. Units under attack orders must have at least half of their units expend at least half of their available movement moving toward the target units. Once within 25cm of the assigned enemy, attacking infantry and cavalry must attempt to assault and artillery must unlimber and fire. Except for cavalry reaction and emergency rallies, the division will ignore enemy formations other than the ones targeted for attack. Attacking divisions will track and follow the assigned targets regardless of the enemy's movement.

Defend - Divisions under defend orders must attempt to hold specific terrain or areas. Once placed, defending units may not voluntarily advance or withdraw beyond the overall defensive position. The center-point of the division must remain within 15cm of the center-point of the defensive location shown on the combat map.

Reserve/Restage - Units may only be given reserve status at the start of the game. Once play begins, no units may be given a reserve command. Divisions in reserve must remain stationary at their original starting position unless:

a) They are issued new orders during the Command Phase. Reserve status divisions which are issued new orders will act on them without having to roll for change of orders.
b) Enemy units approach within 45cm If approached by enemy units, a reserve division will immediately revert to defend status, losing all benefits that are associated with being in reserve.
c) They restage. Reserve divisions may restage; advance up to one move. They must pass an order change roll in order to restage and may not come within 45cm of any enemy unit at any time. They are still considered to be in reserve status at the end of the restage move.

Rally - All member units of a division under rally orders may use their leader's value. (instead of only those within 8cm). The units must be within their leader's command radius and may not move during their upcoming maneuver phase.

A division assaulted while under a rally order reverts to defend status. The division commander may not lead an attack or defense if the division began that turn under a rally order. When all the units of a rallying division successfully rally, the division automatically reverts to defend status.

Written Orders
Because most games of Republique involve players who command groups of divisions, all orders above divisional level are handled using a simple written order system. Corps or army commanders whose on-the-board command figures are not in base to base contact with each other are not allowed to discuss battle events or issue verbal orders to each other during the game. Instead, they exchange written notes which are delivered via assigned courier figures which travel 48cm per turn. This method enforces a certain time lag into the command loop, thereby preventing the "command by ESP" phenomenon. Note that individual players in charge of several corps obviously do not need to send themselves messages, the written message system is meant purely as a control over verbal contact between several players on the same side.

In order to send a written order, write the desired message on a sheet of paper and assign it to a courier figure during the Change Orders portion of the Command phase. This is best achieved by numbering all courier bases and then writing the respective numbers on the outside of the folded orders, which are then placed to one side until their delivery. During the following movement phase, the courier moves toward the leader to whom the message is aimed. At the beginning of the Change Orders segment following the courier's arrival, the message recipient may unfold and read the "communique."

« 1.4 Leaders
Leader figures benefit units under their command by boosting assault performance and by helping units to rally more quickly. In order to lend their leadership value (if any) to an assault, leaders must be attached to one of the participating units. Leaders may attach to units only during the Command Phase, which is achieved by moving the leaders figure into direct base to base contact with a unit. Once attached, the leader may not be detached until the next friendly Command Phase. While attached to a unit, a leader does not lend his value to any other units under his command. See the Assault section for details of attached leader benefits. The process of attaching and detaching leaders does not affect the movement of the unit to which the leader(s) are attached.

During the Rally Phase, leaders lend their value to all friendly units under their command which are within 8cm of their base. If the leader is a divisional leader, and his division is under rally orders, his value will apply to the rally die rolls for all units within the division. Leader values are an indicator of both the particular abilities of the man in question, and also an expression of the army within which he commands. As a leader's value increase, his battlefield abilities also increase. Note that any leader whose value is 3 or greater is considered charismatic:
"-1" leaders - A minus one leader is either widely despised or dangerously inexperienced, and is probably viewed by the troops as someone who is going to get them killed. His presence hurts more than it helps, and he is probably in his position because he is either a (usually young) member of a royal family, or a guerrilla leader who has assumed responsibilities out of his normal area.
"0" leaders - A "Zero" leader is either an uninspired but capable officer serving in a progressive army, or a standard product of many of the more conservative and rigidly controlled armed forces typical of many nations of this time. He serves as a conduit for the transmission of orders so that his divisions and other formations can function, but his personal commitment and/or rapport with his troops is limited to the technicalities of daily operations.
"1" leaders - A "One" leader is a fairly standard product of the more progressive armies of the period, and represents a capable, normally trained officer. If present in a more conservative army, he probably represents a substantial cut above the rest of the officers around him.
"2" leaders - A "Two" leader probably belongs to the top third best officers in a more progressive army, and represents a truly inspiring leader for more conservative forces. He has a good combination of experience and ability.
"3" leaders - A "Three" leader is both capable and charismatic. In progressive armies, he represents the cream of the crop of the officer corps, with an effective combination of ability, management technique and bravery. In conservative armies he represents one of a tiny handful of officers with the connections and charisma to both retain a command and become popular with his troops for one of several possible reasons (religion, reputation, seniority, propaganda, etc.). Class three commanders can give their leader bonus to all units of the same nationality, regardless of chain of command.
"4" leaders - A "Four" leader has become famous in his own time, both in the army and in the populace at large. Regardless of particular abilities (of which there were usually at least some), class four officers first and foremost have a strong personal influence on the men under their command. Class four commanders can give their leader bonus to all units serving on the same side, regardless of nationality or chain of command.
"5" leaders - A "Five" leader has not only become famous in his time, but he is both extremely powerful and charismatic. A combination of great ability and cult following allows him to exert an influence over his men which are out of proportion to his real abilities, which are considerable nevertheless. Note that in campaign games, this powerful position can become the focus of great resentment and blame if things do not go well. Class five commanders can give their leader bonus to all units serving on the same side, regardless of nationality or chain of command.

« 1.5 Morale and Rallying
Morale Conditions - During the game, units can suffer Morale Hits which degrade their effectiveness and increase the chances that they will attempt to spontaneously withdraw. The ideal unit condition is ordered, which represents a unit fully under the control of its officers and able to perform as ordered. Ordered units have no morale hits. If one morale hit is suffered, the unit becomes disordered. If the unit has not rallied when another morale hit is inflicted, it will become rattled. If another morale hit is suffered, the units become shaken, and if a fourth morale hit is suffered the units finally becomes demoralized. Units can recover from morale hits by rallying, but they may also suffer more than one morale hit at once. Shown below are the possible morale conditions and their respective restrictions, if any.
Ordered - Unit behaves normally.
Disordered -Unit may not change formation.
Rattled - Unit may not change formation or deploy skirmishers.
Shaken - Unit may not change formation or deploy skirmishers. Infantry will not attack cavalry or artillery. Cavalry will not attack artillery. Artillery is silenced.
Demoralized - Unit may not change formation or deploy skirmishers and will not voluntarily move toward any enemies. Artillery is silenced. Unit will suffer one panic hit for each additional morale hit inflicted upon it by skirmishers and/or artillery.
Rallying - At each rally step of the Command Phase, players must attempt to rally units which have morale hits. Roll one die and modify the roll using the modifiers shown in the Rally section of the Combat Chart. Compare the modified roll to the cross reference Die Roll box, making sure that the troop grade and morale levels match the unit being rallied. If the modified roll is within the range for those troops, the unit rallies and reverts to ordered status. Units which fail to rally will retain their current poor morale, following any limitations imposed by the morale hits definitions.

Rally Modifiers
  • +(v · 2) Emergency rally - A leader attempting an emergency rally and who has survived his injury roll may apply double his normal value to that unit's rally die roll.
  • Division rallying/leader within 8cm - If a division is under a rally order, all units in that division's command radius receive their commander's leader bonus added to their rally die roll. For divisions not under a rally order, only those units within 8cm of their leaders will receive the same bonus. Leader bonuses are cumulative. For example: A unit within 8cm of both its divisional and corps commander may apply the morale benefits for both to its rally die roll.
  • Heavy support within 8cm - Any unit rallying within 8cm of friendly elite units and/or cavalry receive a +1 modifier to its rally die roll.
  • Dangerous enemy nearby - Units attempting to rally under the following conditions suffer a -2 to their rally roll for each type of threat (to a maximum of -4).
    • Threat 1: Enemy cavalry and/or artillery is within 25cm (regardless of line of sight).
    • Threat 2: Unopposed enemy skirmishers are within effective range (3cm, 5cm or 8cm). Must be effective range for the threatening skirmishers. For example; good skirmishers cannot be a threat at 8cm range.
  • Divisional panic victims - Units belonging to a division which panicked during the previous turn suffer a -1 to their rally die roll for each level of panic suffered by the division. This modifier only applies on the turn immediately following the divisional panic.

Replacing Fallen leaders - When a leader is killed, another may replace him during the controlling player's next command phase. The new leader will have a value of "0", and is only used to show the division's location and its ability to receive orders. Players may adjust their command structure to bring a more valuable leader into a vacated position. For example: If a "4" value corps commander is killed, instead of replacing him with a "0" rated commander, he could be replaced by one of his divisional commanders who might be a "2". The "0" value replacement is given command of the divisional position just vacated by the new corps commander.

No order changes are permitted for a formation during the command phase following the death of their leader. This rule applies to divisional, corps and army level formations and there are no exceptions. As an additional note, the charismatic leaders rule may not be used to "leverage" new orders by having leaders commandeer entire formations which are temporarily leaderless. That rule is for use only to change the structure of an intact chain-of-command, not to improve the condition of one which is damaged. For example;

Corps Commander Lannes is wounded and carried from the field at the end of an artillery fire phase. None of his divisional commanders may receive new orders during their next command phase because the replace leaders step comes after the change orders step. Even if Napoleon is within movement range of one of Lannes' divisions, and the commanding player really wants to change that division's orders, he can't (i.e. - Napoleon may not ride up to the division and verbally change that division's orders). The injury to Lannes is considered to have "damaged" not only the officer, but also the command and communications for his corps and its superiors. For further explanation, see the Questions & Answers section.
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