October 8th - 14th, 1805 Footnotes

Note 1 - Note 2 - Note 3 - Note 4 - Note 5 - Note 6 - Note 7 - Note 8 - Note 9 - Note 10 - Note 11 - Note 12 - Note 13 - Note 14 - Note 15

The Royal Sovereign, which was intended for Vice-Admiral Collingwood's Flag, joined the fleet from England on that day.
The battle was fought before either of those officers arrived
In the upper margin of the paper Lord Nelson wrote, and Mr. Scott added to it a reference, as marked in the text, - "the Enemy's Fleet is supposed to consist of 46 sail of the Line, British Fleet of 40. If either is less, only a proportionate number of Enemy's Ships are to be cut off; B. to be ¼ superior to the E. cut off."
In the upper margin of the paper, and referred to by Lord Nelson as in the text, - "Vide instructions for Signal, yellow with blue fly, Page 17, Eighth flag, Signal Book, with reference to Appendix."
The Signature does not occur to the draught, but was affixed to the originals issued to the Admirals and Captains of the Fleet. To the Copy signed by Lord Nelson, and delivered to Captain George Hope of the Defence, was added—" N. B. When the Defence quits the Fleet for England you are to return this Secret Memorandum to the Victory.,, Captain Hope wrote on that Paper:—" It was agreeable to these Instructions that Lord Nelson attacked the Combined Fleets of France and Spain, off Cape Trafalgar, on the 21st of October, 1805, they having thirty-three Sail of the Line, and we twenty-seven.',
Vice-Admiral Collingwood wrote to Lord Nelson on the 9th of October:—
" Dreadnought, October 9th, 1805.
" My dear Lord,
" I have a just sense of your Lordship's kindness to me, and the full confidence you have reposed in me inspires me with the most lively gratitude. I hope it will not be long before there is an opportunity of showing your Lordship that it has not been misplaced. I am going as soon as possible on board the Royal Sovereign. I have had a little distress about two Lieutenants being senior to my First Lieutenant, Clavell, who is, indeed, my right arm, and the spirit that puts everything in motion. But I hope your Lordship will appoint them to this Ship—their names are Palmer and Hewson—and then I will take my Signal Lieutenant, whose name is Brice Gilliland, and who is very desirous to go into the Sovereign.
'' I had made the distribution which would have filled the Ships complete from the Lord Duncan, but this morning they have sent to tell me all the bread, which was on his invoice, was taken out at Gibraltar. I will hasten this business as much as possible. I have the honour to be your Lordship's most obedient and most humble servant, CUTHB. COLLINGWOOD.
" As soon as the Officers get their appointments, they will move. Mr. Clavell wants none, as his Commission moves with me.,,—Autograph in the Nelson Papers.
The Pickle Schooner. This Vessel brought to England the dispatch announcing the Battle of Trafalgar.
The Minister of Marine, who was supposed to have intended to take the command of the Combined Fleets at Cadiz.
Captains of the Phœbe, Amazon, Hydra, and Sirius, under Captain Blackwood's orders.
It has been already stated that thus highly distinguished Officer was a protégé of Nelson, and that Hoste always entertained the most reverential esteem and affection for his great patron. Writing to his father on the 1st of October, Captain Hoste said, " I am now on board the Victory, and have seen Lord Nelson, who is as good and as friendly as ever ;,, and to his mother, " I dine with Lord Nelson today, and, I understand, I am to be appointed to a larger Ship; he is as good a man as ever lived.,, On the 13th, he wrote to his father, "I am this day appointed to the Amphion, one of the finest and most desirable Ships on this station.,, The Amphion was sent to Algiers with presents to the Dey, and on her arrival at Gibraltar, on the 9th of November, Captain Hoste heard of the Battle and of the death of Lord Nelson. His feelings were thus expressed in a letter to his father:—" I have just time to say that I am as well as a man can be who has lost the best friend he ever possessed. I know not how to begin. I believe I said in my last I was ordered to Algiers, by that ever-to-be-lamented man, with presents to the Dey. I left the Fleet on the 16th, and on the 21st the battle was fought. Not to have been in it, is enough to make one mad; but to have lost such a friend besides, is really sufficient to almost overwhelm me. I sail instantly to join Admiral Collingwood, who is off Cadiz. I will write to you more fully in my next, when matters are more settled: at present I am not fit for anything. I like my Ship very much; as the last gift of that excellent man, I shall ever consider her, and stay in her during the War I am low indeed, and nothing but a good Action with a French or Spanish Frigate will set me up again.,,
To his mother, on the 15th of November, he said, "Admiral Collingwood perfectly understands how and in what manner I have gained my present rank, and the footing I was on with that poor, good, great man, Lord Nelson I cannot get over the loss of our late noble Commander-in-Chief in so short a time. Never shall we find his equal, and never will the Navy of Great Britain furnish a man with half his abilities. I never saw such firmness, such decision, in any man in my life before. His last words to Captain Hardy were, 'to sink rather than strike his flag, and that he died happy in having seen that day.,,, To his father he soon afterwards wrote, "What will Mr. Coke say to the Victory? O that I had been there! it would have been some consolation to have witnessed the last heroic feats of that man, whose memory will ever be held sacred by every British seaman.,, Early in 1806 he said to his sister, "The wretched remains of the French and Spanish fleets are still there, and exhibit a striking example of what British valour can perform, when aided by the genius and bravery of a Nelson. Poor man! I have every day sufficient cause to lament his loss. At any rate, he has left us an example; and, for my own part, though I never expect to attain to the high honours he so deservedly held, yet it will be my first and earnest endeavour to follow his footsteps.,, That Hoste fulfilled this intention was amply shown by his memorable action off Lissa, on the 13th of March, 1811, when he showed that NELSON was uppermost in his thoughts by the telegraphic signal " REMEMBER NELSON,,, and by his letter to his father, written on the 29th of that month: "It is gratifying to me, indeed I feel it so truly, to observe the regard they all have for my dear old Amphion. She was the last gift of my poor Lord Nelson. I hope I have not disgraced his memory in the care of her, though she is cruelly knocked about.,,—Memoirs of Sir William Hoste
In reply to this letter, Vice-Admiral Collingwood wrote:—
" Dreadnought, October 10th, 1805.
" My dear Lord,
" This is a delightful day for our business, and I hope much will be done in clearing the Transports. I find the bread which was in the Duncan, is removed to the Shields, and they are taking it out, but I have no account from him............ There is a tattle mistake in Mr. Gillisland's commission, as he is removed by it from the Sovereign to the Dreadnought, instead of from the Dreadnought to the Sovereign. I have sent to Mr. Hewson to ask him if he will waive his right of seniority, and stay in the Ship he is—if he does I shall be glad I really think these people in Cadiz are about to move, and wish to Heaven we were done with the Transports, and could get a little nearer to them; and now I have only to assure your Lordship that I will hasten everything as much as I possibly can; and have the honour to be, &c., CUTHB. COLLINGWOOD.,,—Autograph in the Nelson Papers.
" Dreadnought, October 10th, 1805.
" My dear Lord,
" While this Transport business is going on, we cannot be better placed, and I suppose the Ships to leeward are in sight to communicate their first motion. I wish I could go on board the Victuallers; for they go on exceedingly slow. They will never have such another day. I shall go on board the Sovereign as soon as I have dined. My baggage has been long there. I send your Lordship, the Agent of the Hospital's letter. I thought I had put them into the last trunk. I have had all the gratuitous medicines surveyed some time past, and demands gone to Gibraltar; but the Dispenser came out in the last Convoy, and was not there to supply them at the time. The first Ship, I dare say, which arrives from Gibraltar, will make all complete in that department. I think Sir Robert Calder had better not urge Durham, if he declares that he cannot be useful to him It makes my heart ache. Whenever the Malabar is cleared of provisions I will manage the cables somehow. I am told the Sovereign teas a great quantity of other stores, as tar, sugar, &c., which can well be distributed in the Fleet, when I have time to look round. The Achille wanted caulking much. I ordered a gang on board of her to shut her up before the wet weather comes.
I send your Lordship the letter I received just now from the Admiralty, because I think it will give you pleasure to find my proceedings approved. I have the honour, &c., CUTH. COLLINGWOOD. — Autograph,
In reply to this letter, Vice-Admiral Collingwood wrote on the same day:—
" Dreadnought, October 12th, 1805.
"I am grieved whenever I think of Sir Robert Calder's case. I think he must be aware of his situation, and feels more about it than he chooses should appear. I wish he was in England, because I think he wants a calm adviser,, ...... In reference to Lord Nelson's disparagement of the Dreadnought, the gallant Admiral, with true nautical affection for the Ship in which he happened to serve, said in her defence:—" The Dreadnought certainly sails very ill, but it is her only fault; for no Ship is better manned, and in every respect better conditioned.
The Agamemnon sailed from England on the 2nd of October, having on board Lord Robert Fitzgerald, Minister at Lisbon; and she joined the Fleet on the 13th of October. When the Agamemnon was signalled, Lord Nelson rubbed his hands and exclaimed with glee, " Here comes Berry; now we shall have a Battle.', Sir Edward Berry's report of his masterly escape from the Rochefort Squadron was as follows:—
" My Lord,
" This morning, at half-past three, Cape Finisterre bearing S. 70 W. distance 20 leagues, I discovered eight Sail to windward. At four, one of them bore down towards the Agamemnon. I immediately made the Private Night-signal to her, which was not answered. I kept steering my course, S. by W., full and by, all sail set, except studdingsails. At daylight I made the Private Signal, which was not answered. The Ship that bore down to us I soon made out to be a Three-decker, with five Ships of the Line, two Frigates, and a Brig, evidently French. The Three-decker was within gun-shot of us at day-break, and crowded all sail to get alongside of us, as did an eighty-gun Ship on our lee quarter. I ordered all the water on the lower decks (there being a butt before the breast of every gun) to be started, and the casks thrown overboard, to be clear for battle. At 9 A.M. I had the satisfaction to perceive that we gained from the Three-decker, but the eighty-gun Ship gained on the Agamemnon. I was determined not to keep away, and I could not tack without the certainty of a broadside from the Three-decker, and being raked by the eighty-gun Ship when in stays. I, therefore, kept the Ship steady to her course, furling the top-gallant sails, and hauling down the staysails in the squalls, and setting them occasionally. At 10 the maintop-gallant sheet was carried away. I then let fly the top-gallant sheets, and fired guns until it was bent. The eighty-gun Ship still gained on us. I ordered the weather quarter-boat to be cut away; and tan out the stern chasers. At eleven the French Admiral relinquished the chase, bore up, and called in the eighty-gun Ship, at which time she was within random shot of us. I immediately hoisted the colours, and shortened sail. The Enemy's Squadron also hoisted English colours. During the chace we ran per log seventy miles. Perceiving a Frigate to leeward, evidently English, kept No. 5 flying, and fired guns repeatedly. I feel it my duty to express to your Lordship my approbation of the exemplary conduct of every Officer and individual in the Ship; but it would be injustice to the First Lieutenant, Mr. Hugh Cook, not to bear testimony to his very judicious conduct and most able counsel, to whom I ascribe the saving of His Majesty's Ship in this retreat.
" In the afternoon, I interchanged signals with His Majesty's Ship, L'Aimable, the Frigate to leeward, and in the evening communicated with the Hon. Captain Bouverie. He informed me that he had, some days ago, dispatched a Sloop to the Hon. Admiral Cornwallis, and to England, with the intelligence of the Rochefort Squadron being out. I therefore deemed it unnecessary to interfere with his former orders.—I have, &c, E. BERRY, Captain.,,
Lord Nelson's generous motive for allowing Sir Robert Calder to return to England in his own Ship, the Prince of Wales, appears in a Letter in p. 66 ante; and there are in the Nelson Papers the following letters from that unfortunate Officer. If Lord Nelson was correct in thinking, as some of his biographers assert, that Calder was one of the only two enemies he ever had in the Service (vice vol. n. p. 337), his conduct towards him, on this occasion, must have been painfully felt.
" (Private.)
" Prince of Wales, the 10th October, 1805.
" My dear Lord,
" I send you three letters for your inspection and determination thereon. I have only to remark, that in conformity to your Lordship's opinion, as well as that of Vice-Admiral Collingwood's, and my own, I have summoned Captain Durham to attend on my inquiry, as I mean to do Rear-Admiral Stirling, and all the Captains who were under my orders, when in presence of the Enemy, between the 22nd and 24th of last July—conceiving it proper, for the satisfaction of the Public Service, as well as to clear my character as am Officer. I am sorry to put any Officer to any difficulties, but the Service must not suffer. As the Royal Sovereign has joined, I am in hopes your Lordship will now very soon allow me to proceed to England, as my mind, you are well assured, must be distressed to a degree, until such time as I have an opportunity to clear my character fully to the world. I shall flatter myself to have the honour of paying to you my respects, and to thank you in person for all your kindnesses to me since I have been under your command, and to wish you every possible success. I have the honour to be, my Lord, with very great respect, and true regard, your obliged and faithful humble servant, " ROB. CALDER.
"'The Prince of Wales can spare to any ship a month's bread and salt provisions, if it meets with your Lordship's approbation. R. C.,,—Autograph in the Nelson Papers.
`' (Private.)
" Prince of Wales, at Sea, the 11th October, 1805.
" My dear Lord,
" Captain Durham having declined to attend me to England, on the inquiry solicited on my part, into my conduct, unless he has a positive order so to do, I beg your Lordship will not give yourself any further trouble upon the occasion, as his evidence can be of no moment to the Public Service; and, as to myself, I am willing to relinquish any private consideration on my own account. My reasons for having summoned him in the first instance were, that I might not have been suspected to have collected only such as were my supposed friends, and thereby occasioned the inquiry to be called a packed business. This matter being now settled respecting Captain Durham, permit me to repeat to your Lordship my strong wishes to return to England, without further loss of time, in the Prince of Wales, that my mind may be put at ease, and for the re-establishing of my health, which has suffered so very seriously from my severe and long services. I have the honour to be, my Lord, with very great respect, and true regard, your Lordship's much obliged and faithful humble servant, ROB. CALDER.,'—Autograph.
" (Private.)
" Prince of Wales, at Sea, the 12th October, 1805.
" My Lord,
" I am this instant honoured with your Lordship's letter: I own I was not prepared for its contents. Believe me, they have cut me to the soul, and, if I am to be turned out of my Ship, after all that has passed, I have only to request I may be allowed to take my Captain, and such Officers as I find necessary for the justification of my conduct as all Officer, and to be put into such Ship with them, and Captains Lechemere and Browne, as your Lordship shall deem proper for my passage to England, and that I may be permitted to go without a moment's further loss of time. My heart is broken; and I can only say I have the honour to be, my Lord, with all due respect, your Lordship's obliged and faithful humble servant, ROB. CALDER.
`` P.S.—I hope and trust I shall not be kept here until Vice-Admiral J. T. Duckworth arrives. This would be heaping an additional distress upon me. Adieu.,,—Autograph.
" (Private.)
" Prince of Wales, at Sea, the 12th October, 1805, 6 P.M.
" My dear Lord,
" I have this instant been honoured by your favour by Captain Otway, who has been so good as to take the friendly part which he has done. I have only to thank your Lordship, and to say I feel as I ought to do upon the very friendly communication you have been pleased to communicate to me this evening, and for which I shall ever feel grateful. I can have no objections to your Lordship's forwarding all the correspondence, both public and private, that has passed between us, since I have had the honour to be under your Lordship's command. I have not it in my power to say more at present, as I cannot keep Captain Otway, as it is growing dark. I shall hope to have the honour of paying my respects to your Lordship before I leave this, and to receive your commands. Until when, I have the honour to be, your Lordship's ever much obliged and faithful humble Servant, ROBERT CALDER. ,—Autograph.